Generally no. In bankruptcy, all creditors of a certain class must be treated equally. To do otherwise shows an unfair preference to a group of creditors at the expense of other creditors. There are, of course, distinctions by class. You can’t file against non-dischargeable debts like taxes, child support, and student loans. You will notice that your attorney will still list these debts on your bankruptcy schedules, and this is done for mandatory disclosure requirements.
In chapter 7, your unsecured debts – credit cards, medical bills, personal loans, and the like – will all be discharged. In Wisconsin, we have case law (In re: Guseck) which indicates that debts are discharged, even if they are left off of your schedules. This works to the debtor’s advantage when they simply lose track of all their bills and neglect to add one before they file.
The only real picking and choosing you get to do in Chapter 7 is on secured debts. You can choose to retain property and reaffirm on the debt. Alternatively, you can surrender property and have the deficiency balance discharged. In Chapter 13, we can be slightly more creative and treat creditors differently for a variety of reasons – but only to a limited extent. The rules in Chapter 7 generally apply to Chapter 13 as well.
Many debtors complain that they don’t want to include certain debts. Usually, this is because it is a debt owed to a professional that the debtor wishes to maintain a future business relationship with – most commonly doctors, attorneys, and auto mechanics. However, these creditors are ordinarily unsecured creditors, just like credit cards. They must be listed on schedules and given notice of the bankruptcy, and their debts legally discharged. If you make payments to these creditors prior to filing for bankruptcy, they will constitute a preferential payment which can be recovered by the Trustee by lawsuit and re-distributed to all unsecured creditors.
Although these creditors have no legal right to pursue you for the debts you discharged, you are permitted by statute to pay the debt back voluntarily after your discharge has been issued.