Scenario: John Doe filed Chapter 7 Bankruptcy in 2013, discharging about $60k in unsecured debt while reaffirming on his mortgage and car loan. He has never missed a payment since his bankruptcy case was filed. Now, 2 years later, he has pulled his credit report and is dismayed to find out that while his auto loan payments have been reported, his mortgage payments have not. As a result, his credit score hasn’t improved as much as he would have hoped by now. He calls his bankruptcy attorney and finds out that while he entered into a reaffirmation agreement on the auto loan, he did not enter into such an agreement on the mortgage. Instead, he was doing what is referred to as a “ride through” – making payments sans a reaffirmation agreement.
Why is this happening?
To be honest, we’re not really sure. Last October, after the conclusion of the Annual Bankruptcy Update in Milwaukee, I had a discussion with 7 other attorneys concerning a lender’s requirement to report payments with or without a reaffirmation agreement.
On the one hand, the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) only requires creditors to make accurate reports to the credit bureaus. It does not, however, confer an affirmative duty to report at all. In other words, any creditor can choose to report or not report, but if they do report, those reports must be accurate.
There was nothing in either the FCRA nor the bankruptcy code that any of us were aware of that indicated that lack of a reaffirmation agreement meant that a lender could not report payments, nor that filing a reaffirmation agreement forced a lender to report payments. (In fact, it is entirely possible that payments might not be reported, even if a reaffirmation agreement is filed.)
It just seems to be “the way it is” – a matter of convention and policy rather than law. At least one attorney reported being told by a creditor that the creditor’s policy was to not report without a reaffirmation agreement because to do so would be a violation of the discharge injunction. Not only do we feel that argument is specious, but the inducement that creditors are making (no reaffirmation, no reporting) might itself be the bigger violation of the discharge injunction.
To the best of my knowledge, this has not yet been litigated in this district.
Can a reaffirmation agreement be filed now so that my payments get reported?
No. At least, not in the Eastern District of Wisconsin. The judges here (and I imagine in most districts) have a very strict policy that reaffirmation agreements will not be approved if they are entered after the discharge order is issued, and that cases cannot be reopened for this purpose.
Whose fault is this?
Usually, it’s nobody’s fault. Reaffirmation agreements are voluntary agreements between a debtor and creditor. A creditor cannot force an unwilling debtor to enter into an agreement, nor can a debtor force an unwilling creditor to enter into an agreement.
Unless someone deliberately obstructed transmission of the agreement, or if the debtor failed to notify the creditor of their intent, or if the creditor simply neglected to draft the agreement – there is no blame.
Why didn’t my bankruptcy attorney draft the reaffirmation agreement?
I have yet to meet a single debtor attorney who drafts reaffirmation agreements. And I think we all refuse to draft them for the same reasons. Reaffirmations are agreements between the creditor and debtor. I’m happy to review the agreement, advise in favor of or against signing the agreement, and signing off on the agreement when appropriate. But the agreement should still be drafted by one of the parties to the agreement. And the creditor has access to contractual information (interest rates, maturity dates, current payoff balances, etc.) necessary to properly complete the agreement that the debtors’ attorney may not have access to (at least, not all of the information).
This is the worst thing ever!
Not necessarily. Reaffirmation agreements turn otherwise dischargeable debts into non-dischargeable debts. Yes, secured debts like mortgages and auto loans are dischargeable and presumed to be discharged in the absence of a reaffirmation agreement. One of the nice things about a ride-through is that it allows you to retain your property without assuming the risk of having to pay a deficiency if you ever default and have your property repossessed.
In other words, let’s say a year after you file for bankruptcy, you default on your mortgage payment. Without the reaffirmation agreement, the lender is only empowered to foreclose the property. They cannot collect a balance from you. With the reaffirmation agreement, they can foreclose AND collect a deficiency balance from you.
In fact, the only good reason to sign a reaffirmation agreement is for the credit reporting to help rehabilitate your score. But there are other ways to rebuild credit.
I still want my payments reported, gosh darn it.
You have a couple of options, but none guaranteed to work.
- Talk to the lender. Ask them to report your payments. (This works better with smaller local banks and credit unions than it does with the big banks.) If the creditor failed to provide you with an agreement – tell them that you would have signed the agreement if they had drafted one. Since they chose not to, it’s hardly fair to punish you for their inaction.
- Refinance. This is going to be difficult without the payment history to help rebuild your credit. If you’re refinancing with the same lender – many of them refuse to refinance because of the lack of the reaffirmation agreement (which is really stupid, because with the refinance, they have a legal claim to the money; without it, they do not).
- Dispute the lack of reporting with the credit bureaus. This has been suggested by a few attorneys. Gather evidence of all of your post-petition payments and send them in to TransUnion, Experian, and Equifax. Explain that your payments haven’t been reported because a reaffirmation agreement was not filed. The problem with this approach is that – if you’re disputing a credit reporting error – there’s no error to correct. Again, FCRA only requires that creditors report accurately, it does not require them to report at all. Even if the credit bureaus do amend your report to show the payments, it still doesn’t mean that your lender will report payments going forward, which means that you will have to continually update the bureaus yourself.